Volume 2 Issue 1
Wednesday, January 12, 2000
2. Happy Y2K
3. Work Hardening Alloys
4. Email and the Internet
Just a word of thanks to all the new subscribers. We welcome your comments and opinions. Please indulge us.
2. Happy Y2K
Does it feel as strange to you as it does to me to be writing "2000" for the year on your checks, etc.? I'm sure I'm not the only one. Aside from all the hype, the turnover apparently went pretty well. No glitches here, at least so far. I still have a number of programs to test, but I feel I'm not going to experience any problems.
It appears that the retailers did a great business over the Internet this past Holiday Season. It is just the beginning. This media is truly a revolution. I personally feel it's akin to the introduction of the printing press. Never before in the history of the world has it been so easy to communicate, publish and educate. We here at Clad Technologies are about to embark on a new venture in training and educating on the Internet. Although I have conducted hardfacing classes on the Internet over the past few months, the state of the art will now allow me to expand and improve these sessions. You will be hearing more about this in the weeks to come.
I'm excited about the coming year. I certainly want to extend my very best to all of you. Happy Y2K.
3. Work Hardening Alloys
Now here is great family of alloys. They are commonly known as Hadfield (after it's inventor) Manganese alloys. Work Hardening alloys are not just confined to the Hadfield alloys however. They can be stainless steels as well. Practically all alloys work hardened to some extent. But none do it so dramatically as the Hadfield Manganese alloys. Their hardness values can increase from about 200 BHN to about 450 BHN by simply working the metal... a real plus for the builders of mining and construction components. Despite their great wearing factor and toughness, they do wear out. And the welding industry has a host of alloys to choose from to help with routine repairs:
Postle: Postalloy 2850 FCO
UTP: AF BM (OA 1000)
Lincoln: Lincor M
Please keep in mind that these products are to be used on Manganese parts only. They are not suitable for use on Low Alloy or Carbon Steel parts. A higher carbon version is used for these parts as well as a Chromium rich alloy are available in these situations. For simplicity, we are only going to discuss the straight manganese versions as listed above
Standard base metal preparation should always be followed prior to welding. But, when it comes to preheat and interpass temperatures, a major quirk regarding heat inputs must be understood. Manganese components have a "memory". What I mean by that is: Manganese remembers times and temperatures. 600ºF seems to be the magic temperature. Anything above this, Manganese remembers how long it's been there and starts to collect carbides which eventually leads to fracture. So, it's imperative to keep the interpass below 600ºF. Stringer beads are always best. There isn't much you can do about the HAZ, that zone just immediately below the fusion line, so you must be aware that repeated buildups can lead to failure. In some cases the part can be salvaged by completely gouging off any of the old buildup materials. It is not unusual to submerge the manganese components in water while welding to keep the heat input to a minimum. This also helps with distortion..
Once the manganese alloys is deposited, you can sometimes hardface with a couple of layers of a medium chromium carbide alloy such as:
Postle: Postalloy Postalloy 2829
UTP: AF Dur 350 (OA 2000)
Lincoln: Lincor 50
In some cases depending upon the amount of impact occurring in service, higher hardfacing alloys can be used.
Manganese's main claim to fame is its toughness. It's abrasion resistance is not that hot. Typically no better than a low alloy of about 40Rc. If abrasion is your problem, then other alloys should be considered. The subject of Manganese and its welding characteristics is beyond the scope of this newsletter. If you have specific questions, please contact me. I hope this little article has peaked your interest in this fascinating alloy and will perhaps inspire you to find out more abut it.
The Internet is fast changing the way we communicate and do business. Here is a little excerpt I thought might be of interest to you.
NUMBER OF EMAIL ACCOUNTS UP 66%
As of September, there were 435 million active email accounts in the world, up 66% from a year earlier, according to Messaging Online http://www.messagingonline.com a Web email portal.
The United States and Canada accounted for more than 60% of the total number of email accounts, while Europe, Australia and Japan accounted for about a third of the accounts. In the United States, most email users have at least two email addresses, according to Messaging Online.
Corporate email is responsible for 180 million accounts worldwide. In the early 1990s, the work/home email split was 80/20. That trend has since been reversed, and the split is now 40/60, according to Messaging Online.
Email account growth has been accelerating. It took six years-from 1989 to 1995--for the number of email accounts to grow from 10 million to 100 million, Messaging Online says. Two years later that figure had doubled to 200 million, and then it doubled again in just 18 months.
Bohler Thyssen Welding USA Inc. (http://www.btwusa.com) is a single source supplier for practical high quality electrodes, wires, and fluxes.
Postle Industries Inc. http://www.postle.com . Postle offers a complete range of hardface welding alloys to protect equipment from all types of wear.
Sure Alloy Steel Corporation (http://www.surealloy.com) Wear Control - Design, engineering, and fabrication with over 40 years experience.