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A Clad Technologies Inc. Publication

A Clad Technologies Inc. Publication

In This Issue

1.  Welcome and Thanks

2.  Hardfacing & Wear Technology ____ Penetration & Dilution

3.  Leadership

4. "Grillin" ____ Beer & Pork Chops

5.  Checking On Customers


1. Welcome and Thanks

I would like to extend a very warm welcome to those who are receiving "Wear It’s At" for the first time. My aim is to help inform you of hardfacing and wear issues along with other little tidbits of information that I hope you will find helpful. If you find this letter helpful, please pass it on to another. The more the merrier.


2. Hardfacing & Wear Technology .... Dilution & Penetration

Both dilution and penetration have an enormous effects upon the performance of hardfacing alloys. This becomes evident when you look at the affect one layer and two layer deposits differ in abrasion resistance. For example a one layer deposit of High Chromium Iron can have a typical abrasion resistance of 0.35 Grams loss in the ASTM G65 test, and a two layer deposit made with the same electrode can have a value of 0.19 Grams loss. The effect of dilution has almost a doubling effect in abrasion resistance. And all because of dilution and penetration.

So what is the difference between dilution and penetration?

Well, one is really the consequence of the other. Penetration is a term used to describe how deeply the arc has melted the base material or the previous weld deposit. And of course this is all dependent upon amps, volts, electrical stickout, and travel speed. It can be said that the hotter the arc the greater the penetration. More amps and volts = more penetration. The longer that arc is played on the base metal or previous deposit, the greater the penetration. Unlike joining alloys, hardfacing alloys strive to produce as little penetration as possible. Deeply penetrating arcs not desirable in hardfacing alloys. We want as much of the electrode chemistry to be deposited per layer as possible.

Dilution is the measurement used to describe the amount of penetration in terms of the base metal. It is described in terms of a percentage of base material within the deposit. For example, 35% dilution simply means that the weld deposit is made up of 65% welding wire and 35% base plate. Now let’s assume that what we have just described is the first layer. Then what does the second layer chemistry look like? If the dilution remains the same (35%), then the resulting chemistry of the second layer deposit is (35% of 35%) or 12.25% base metal and 87.75% weld wire. And, applying the same principals to the third layer, the deposit would have a chemistry of (35% of 12.25%) or 4.3% base metal and (100%-4.3%) or 95.7% weld wire. You can see that as the number of layers increases, the deposit becomes closer to the chemistry of the weld wire. Theoretically, it can never approach 100% weld wire, but after the third layer, it can be considered "close enough".

There are many factors that affect penetration and dilution. Any thing that produces high heat per linear length will increase penetration and dilution. High amps & volts, low travel speeds and short electrical stickouts all increase penetration and dilution. Among the welding processes:

  • Gas Shielded Wires - 45%
  • Open Arc or non gas shielded wires - 40%
  • Submerged Arc - 35%
  • Stick Electrode - 25%

The above figures are only approximate and depend greatly upon welding parameters and electrode diameter and shielding media. Polarity also has an effect. Practically all hardfacing products are run on DC machines. DCSP or (Electrode Negative) is the least penetrating but unfortunately arc stability is a problem. So we must settle for DCRP or (Electrode Positive).

A note about chemistries as posted by electrode manufacturers: In practically all cases, the electrode manufactures will publish undiluted deposit chemistries. In other words, the chemistry published is the actual chemistry of a 6 layer deposit. This is typical. That means that if you are only depositing two layers, which is the limit of many high chromium irons, then it cannot be expected to have the published chemistry. It will always be something less. Knowing the amount of dilution, you could calculate the chemistry of any deposit.

Armed with the knowledge of the effects of penetration and dilution on the chemistry you can now approach the performance of any alloy with more confidence.


3. Leadership

Most of us, at sometime in our lives, encounter the role of leadership. It may occur in the workplace, recreation, or personal service sectors of our lives.. It is not unusual to equate leadership with managing people, but that is not always the case. Leadership is a personal discipline, and when applied correctly, affords the ability to lead people. Or put another way, our example inspires others to follow. I have read many books and articles about this subject and each has contributed to an overall understanding of the philosophy behind it. Let me recommend a book, of little known notoriety, "Leaders - The Strategies For Taking Charge" by Warren Bennis and Burt Nanus. It can be purchased on line at ( or Barnes and Noble ( It’s not long and very easy reading. It has been an inspiration to me. I do not always practice what it preaches, but it has been a guideline for me. The authors stress the importance of 4 main strategies.

* (1) Attention Through Vision

* (2) Meaning Through Communication

* (3) Trust Through Positioning

* (4) The Deployment of Self

Although each strategy is important in its own right, I think the last one should be the first one. Deployment of Self means quite simply that a leader is one whose personal integrity and work ethic are continually and openly displayed in all things. Focus, vision, and learning are the hallmarks of a good leader. Encouraging others to bring out their best for the good of the whole and recognizing that everyone makes mistakes and mistakes are opportunities for learning.

The book is packed with good information. Mr. Bennis has also authored another book called "Managing People Is Like Herding Cats". The title will give you some clue as to his views on the impossibility of managing people. You can manage projects but only lead people.


4. "Grillin":

In the last issue we looked at Beer and its relationship to Grillin. Thanks for all the comments and suggestions. Since Beer is such a popular additive to marinades, I took the liberty to look up more beer recipes. Let me share one with you that I think is great.


After being tenderized by a beer marinade, these chops require only a quick turn on the grill or under the broiler to form the centerpiece of a hearty meal.

2/3 cup soy sauce

1/4 cup mirin (syrupy rice wine, available at Asian markets and some

supermarkets) or sweet sherry

1/4 cup cider vinegar

1/3 cup sugar

2 tablespoons chopped fresh gingerroot

2/3 cup beer (not dark)

six 1-inch-thick rib or loin pork chops

In a saucepan combine the soy sauce, the mirin, the vinegar, the sugar, the gingerroot, and the beer, simmer the mixture until it is reduced to about 1 1/3 cups, and let the marinade cool until it is room temperature. In a shallow baking dish large enough to hold the pork chops in one layer combine the pork chops and the marinade, turning the chops to coat them thoroughly, and let the chops marinate, covered and chilled, turning them several times, overnight.

Pour the marinade into a saucepan and boil it for 5 minutes. Grill the pork chops on an oiled rack set about 4 inches over glowing coals, basting them with the marinade during the last 5 minutes of the cooking time, for 8 minutes on each side, or until they are just cooked through. Alternatively the pork chops may be broiled on the rack of a broiler pan under a preheated broiler in the same manner.

Serves 6.

5. Checking On Customers

Before I sign off, I would like to share this little story with you in regards to customers.

A little boy went into a drug store, reached for a soda carton and pulled it over to the telephone. He climbed onto the carton so that he could reach the buttons on the phone, and proceeded to punch in seven digits. He said, "Lady, I want to cut your lawn."

The woman replied, "I already have someone to cut my lawn." "Lady, I’ll cut your lawn for half the price of the person who cuts your lawn now."

The woman responded that she was very satisfied with the person who was presently cutting her lawn.

The little boy found yet more perseverance and offered, "Lady, I’ll even sweep your curb and your sidewalk, so on Sunday you will have the prettiest lawn in all of North Palm Beach."

Again, the woman answered in the negative.

With a smile on his face, the little boy replaced the receiver. The druggist walked over to the boy and said, "Son, I would like to offer you a job."

The little boy replied, "No thanks. I don’t need a job - I was just checking on the job I already have."

Are your customers as loyal to you?